D6 Class 9.2

Mar 25

Preliminary Findings: Wikipedia

Read about the topic you selected for this unit in Wikipedia and other easily accessed resources. Make sure to read around your topic, trying to find a broad range of articles that bear on it.

Note that there may be no article that focuses specifically on your particular, so be inventive and look for articles that reference or relate to your topic in some way.

Writing HW Paste into the Comment Field, below:

  • A list of TEN key individuals, organizations and events, ranked in order of significance. If you're covering a movement, consider including not just movement activists, but political opponents and enemies.
  • A paragraph written by you providing a basic outline of what you’ve learned. Your paragraph should briefly sum up the "story" of what happened in your topic over the past few decades (reaching back as far as a century if you like). If possible, end this ¶ with a question motivating further research: What would you genuinely like to know more about? What strikes you as odd or in need of further explanation?
  • Following the ¶, list any 2 or 3 leads on secondary sources (scholars/authorities). These should be published sources, not mere websites. You'll find these leads at the bottom of each wikipedia article, under the headings "References," "Further Reading," and "Bibliography."

In Class: Books in Mugar
Please bring your laptop with you to class, preloaded to this link: http://www.bu.edu.

15 responses to “D6 Class 9.2

  1. Communism
    -Mao Zedong
    -Fidel Castro
    -Pol Pot
    -Joseph Stalin
    -Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels
    -Cambodian Genocide
    -Indonesian mass killings
    -Cultural Revolution
    -Cold War
    -South American Civil Wars

    Karl Marx and Frederick Engels began their communist ideology with good intentions. Seeing the flaws in capitalism they sought to fix, specifically the unequal distribution of wealth. Instead, their vision was perverted and has spanned a long violent history of dictatorship and genocide. I want to learn more about the key factors in the evolution of communism and the ideology’s close officiation with fascism. As well as understand why and how did the idea of economic equality become so vile?

    • Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot regime: Race, power, and genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 1997.
    • Gaddis, John Lewis (1997). We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. Oxford University Press.
    • Priestland, David. 2009. The Red Flag: A History of Communism.

  2. War on Drugs
    -President Richard Nixon
    -Drug Policy Alliance
    -Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAOAP)
    -Nancy Reagan and “Just Say No” campaign
    -Ronald Reagan
    -American Civil Liberties Union
    -Office of National Drug Control Policy
    -Plan Columbia
    -Jimmy Carter

    The War on Drugs started back in the 1970s by President Richard Nixon. Its goal was to reduce the use of illicit drugs and the presence of illegal drugs in the black market. Nixon initiated this war with the construction of DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency) and the SAODAP (Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention). Many people and organizations have spoken out claiming that the war on drugs has failed, including the Drug Policy Alliance. The legalization of marijuana for both medical and recreational use in many states and even the decriminalization of drugs in Oregon recently represents how this war has failed. There are hints that this war was not only about drugs but had racial and political motives behind it. This war is still being fought although it looks to be close to being over.

    -“Drug policy, criminal justice and mass imprisonment”, by Bryan Stevenson https://web.archive.org/web/20.....venson.pdf
    -Shultz, George P. and Pedro Aspe, “The Failed War on Drugs”, New York Times op-ed, December 31, 2017. Retrieved 2018-01-01.
    – “The Impact of the War on Drugs on U.S. Incarceration”. Human Rights Watch. May 2000. Archived from the original on November 28, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2007.

  3. Top 10:
    Criticism of Cancel Culture
    Black Lives Matter
    Civil Rights Movement of the 60s
    MeToo Movement
    Marketing Moves
    Open Letter
    Social Justice Warrior
    Cancel culture was a culmination of multiple social events that eventually came together to be what it is today. The origins and influences of cancel culture stems from the Civil Rights Era during the 60s. Techniques such as boycotting and protesting were mainly used, and cancel culture draws from it as the act of cancelling someone is essentially the social boycott in protest of their wrongdoings. However, what propelled cancel culture to where it is today was the rise of the many modern movements that changed the political atmosphere. Movements such as Black Lives Matters and MeToo were pivotal in the surge of cancel culture as people were sick of change not occurring and with the advent of social media, they decided to take action into their own hand. However, there are many criticism of cancel culture with many claiming its too harsh and impudent and others even claim cancel culture doesn’t exist. Furthermore, opposition of cancel culture often use words like “woke” and “social justice warrior” as a means to mock the progressive activists. I guess my question at the end of reading all of this is whether or not cancel culture is just a social marketing trend that people take part of to make themselves look good, or do the people who partake in it actively care and support the causes they are cancelling people over.

    Secondary Sources:
    Those People We Tried to Cancel? They’re All Hanging Out Together – John McDermott, The New York Times
    Cancel Culture is Chaotic Good – Chi Luu

  4. Moon landing of 1969 (Apollo 11)
    Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
    Scott and Mark Kelly
    Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken (Crew Dragon Demo-2)
    Mars 2020 rover Perseverance
    Richard Nixon
    Cold War and Soviet Union Sputnik
    International Space Station (ISS)

    During the Cold War with tensions heightening regarding potentially deadly weapons, including atomic bombs, countries began to literally look to a whole other universe, space, to find an escape route. In 1957, the Soviet Union released the world’s first satellite, eventually kicking off the space race. For the first time, space became a catalyst for patriotism, as people were able to root for their country becoming the first to send a man to the moon as if it were a boxing match. During Richard Nixon’s presidency, in 1969, America gained its victory trophy, as they successfully sent astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to the moon. Armstrong’s famous quote, “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind,” spread across the country as a signal of triumph. This momentous occurrence led to a major cultural shift, with everyday products such as toys and jewelry altering to space themes and eventually entertainment, especially films, covering space exploration. The debate of secular versus sacred was also pushed up to the forefront of people’s minds, as the exploration beyond Earth began to scientifically prove our insignificant place in the solar system. Currently, explorations in space are still immensely extensive, as present experiments and missions, such as the Mars 2020 rover and Crew Dragon, continue to draw in large audiences. As I continue to research, I would like to explore more in-depth the cultural side of space exploration, including the differences between American products and entertainment before and after the moon landing and comparing those findings to today.

    Launius, Roger D. Reaching for the Moon: A Short History of the Space Race. Yale University Press, 2019. https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.......ctvhrcxzx.
    Tribbe, Matthew D. “No Requiem for the Space Age: The Apollo Moon Landings and American Culture.” Essay. In Journal of American History Volume 102, Issue 1ed., Volume 102:299–300. Oxford University Press, 2015. https://academic-oup-com.ezpro.....299/686569.

  5. America’s Involvement in the Middle East
    -George W. Bush
    -Cold War
    -Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement
    -March 1949 Syrian Coup
    -Suez Crisis
    -1979 Iranian Revolution
    -Iran-Contra Affair

    After World War II, America started to expand its presence in the Middle East, replacing Great Britain as the major power in the region. The U.S. sought power in the region due to the large oil deposits on the Persian Gulf and, as well, to combat the growing power and influence of the Soviet Union in the region. America sought to maintain its influence through installing leaders loyal to them with coups and fighting in wars. After the September 11th attacks, the U.S., under George W. Bush, increased its involvement in the region, specifically targeting organizations like ISIS/ISIL and the Taliban through military invasions into Iraq and Afghanistan and deployment of troops into neighboring regions like Syria. 20 years after 9/11, The U.S. continues to have a presence in the Middle East while many call for the wars to end.
    What role have corporations like Raytheon and Boeing, dubbed the “military industrial complex,” played in facilitating America’s involvement and lack of withdrawal in the region?

    Le Billon, P., El Khatib, F. (March 2004) “From free oil to ‘freedom oil’: terrorism, war and U.S. Geopolitics in the Persian Gulf”, Geopolitics, Volume 9, Issue 1
    Chomsky, Noam (January/February 2005) “Imperial Presidency”, Canadian Dimension, Vol. 39, No. 1
    Terry H. Anderson, Bush’s Wars (Oxford University Press; 2011) on Iraq and Afghanistan, 2001–2011

  6. -Black Lives Matter
    -Treyvon Martin and George Zimmerman
    -George Floyd
    -All Lives Matter / Blue Lives Matter
    -Alicia Garza
    -Donald Trump
    -KKK and Proud Boys
    -Charleston church shooting
    -Colin Kapernick; “Take a Knee”
    -Civil Rights Movement

    The Black Lives Matter Movement was sparked originally by Alicia Garza after the 2012 shooting of Treyvon Martin by cop George Zimmerman. Her outrage of the police brutality and lack of justice caused her to jump in action, alongside Opal Tometi and Patrisse Cullors, to start up the trending Twitter hashtag #BlackLivesMatter, which eventually turned into an organization and international movement. However, the movement did not start gaining momentum and increased popularity until after the Ferguson shooting of Michael Brown by cops. With increased amounts of police brutality, the Black Lives Matter movement became centralized around the reformation of the police force, however, it’s not its only focus. Although its popularity had temporarily died out after 2015, after George Floyd’s death in 2020, the outrage became even more international than ever before in the history of the BLM movement. Originally, the net reaction of the BLM movement was negative, however, during the second wave of BLM activity, it became more accepted and virtually understood. However, many hate groups and enemies, such as the KKK, Proud Boys, Donald Trump, and other deeply conservative individuals aim to terrorize or denounce the BLM movement and what it stands for, creating and using slogans such as “All Lives Matter” and “Blue Lives Matter” to further make a mockery of the movement. Something I would like to learn more about is what laws, regulations, and reformations has the movement succeeded in making within the criminal justice system and police force?

    Shonekan, Stephanie. “CONCLUSION: RACE, PLACE, AND PEDAGOGY IN THE BLACK LIVES MATTER ERA,” Black Lives Matter and Music: Protest, Intervention, Reflection, edited by Shonekan Stephanie and Orejuela Fernando, by Maultsby Portia K., 111-18. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2018. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv75d8jt.
    Bump, Philip. “Over and over, Trump has focused on Black Lives Matter as a target of derision or violence,” The Washington Post, 01 September 2020. http://www.washingtonpost.com/.....-violence/

  7. Language

    Alphabet (does not have to have English characters)
    -Word Creation
    God (tower of babel)
    Noam Chomsky
    King Sejong

    We now have around 6500 different types of languages people speak today. Let’s go back to the first language that was created. The oldest language is Sumerian, and it dates back to at least 3500 BC. Unfortunately, historians don’t have much evidence on how Sumerians created their languages since languages don’t leave physical artifacts. However, as writing was invented between 50,000 and 300,000 years later, people started to get some ideas on how languages were created. Languages spread through humans moving and migrating all over the world. As they move, they will have contact with each other and often develop a new language that is usually a mix of the two already spoken one. From a religious standpoint, different and first few languages were created through the story of the tower of babel. I am curious to find out how different types of languages are created in different methods? I also want to learn more about what makes each language unique and what makes them harder to learn compared to others.

    Agha, Agha (2006). Language and Social Relations. Cambridge University Press.
    Metzger, Bruce Manning; Coogan, Michael D (2004). The Oxford Guide To People And Places of the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-19-517610-0. Retrieved 22 December 2012.

  8. The Modern Era ( Including The Renaissance, The Age of Reason, The Enlightment)
    Scientific and Industrial Revolutions
    Modern Science
    The Middle Ages
    World War II
    The Cold War

    What we now call “Modernity” is highly influenced by revolutionary periods in history. Every aspect of today’s societies, from political ideologies to arts, date back to the early modern era. Ideas such as individualism, capitalism, consumerism, and the desire of technological and political progress, began evolving centuries ago. In politics for example, modernity began with Niccolò Machiavelli, during the Renaissance, who proposed a more realistic approach to political issues, than the medieval tendency to merely explain the best way to handle political decisions. In addition, despite the debate over the influence of the Renaissance, generally in human history, major aversive events like the Middle Ages, or the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), have led to the appearance of great thinkers, and discoveries. On the other hand, in the past century, the impact of the World Wars (I, II), and the one of the Cold War was huge. Could we connect the contemporary postwar rapid scientific and technological development to the early modern period?

    Everdell, William R. 1997. The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-Century Thought.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1990. The Consequences of Modernity.
    Latour, Bruno. 1993. We Have Never Been Modern, translated by Catherine Porter.

  9. Wong Chin Foo
    Ai-jen Poo
    Wong Kim Ark
    Grace Lee Boggs
    May Chen
    Kristina Wong
    Reanne Estrada
    Yellow Peril
    Asian American Political Alliance (AAPA)
    Asian American Movement

    Throughout history as well as into the modern-day, Asian Americans are stereotyped to have a perfect academic background and earn a high income. They are placed on a pedestal as a minority, and their deemed “successes” are even compared to other minority groups as well. William Petersen in 1966 created the term “model minority” in the New York Times Magazine titled “Success story: Japanese American style,” and claimed that the Asian family culture and tradition allowed for Japanese Americans to successfully integrate into US society as well as overcome racism and discrimination. Although these assumptions seem to carry positive connotations, it is a harmful factor that discredits many discriminations Asian Americans face, thus the “model minority” is a myth. The assumptions are overgeneralized and widely inaccurate, and it is politically driven by white people to paint a selective portrayal of Asian Americans. Furthermore, it pressures other racial groups to follow the “model minority’s” false narrative. I would like to grasp a deeper understanding of the shift between the alienation Asian Americans faced to the “model minority” rebranding.

    Wu, Judy T., “The Racial Turn in Immigration and Ethnic History,” Journal of American Ethnic History, vol. 36, no. 2, 2017, pp. 99-101, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10......36.2.0099.

    Caliendo, Stephen M., The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity, Routledge, November 17, 2010, https://depts.washington.edu/s.....n%20(2011).pdf

  10. Modernism (music)
    Edward Campbell
    Roaring Twenties
    Louis Armstrong
    Romantic Music
    Industrial Revolution
    Thomas Edison

    Why do we listen to the music we listen to now? Music has something that’s always been constant in our lives. Although we may not explicitly search for a specific song to play, the moment we leave our rooms we will at least once hear music. It may be from the radio, in a coffee shop, or possibly even someone singing a song that is stuck in their head. But what makes the music we listen to now different from before? For example, the era for romantic music wouldn’t have been possible without the existence of the Industrial Revolution. It was through the Industrial Revolution that the instruments necessary for such symphony to occur existed. Meanwhile, looking at current times: the era of modern music, there are long ranges of what this style of music entails. Whether it be the start of jazz during the post-World War I movement or the technological advancements in terms of radio and audio that created pop, music heavily relied on surrounding factors. While, yes the artists themselves had the creative juice to create such music, it was the external factors that were happening around the same time. Thus, I come to question the exact ways music has changed over time due to the events happening at the same time, wanting to discover the relationship between events and shift in music.

    Secondary Sources:
    Grout, Donald Jay. 1960. A History of Western Music. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
    Pleasants, Henry (1969) Serious Music and All That Jazz, Simon & Schuster.
    Gillett, Charlie, (1970) The Sound of the City. The Rise of Rock and Roll, Outerbridge & Dienstfrey.

  11. 1. Roe v. Wade
    2. Planned Parenthood v. Casey
    3. Planned Parenthood
    4. Live Action
    5. Fourteenth Amendment
    6. Nineteenth Amendment
    7. Rosie the Riveter
    8. 2017 Women’s March
    9. Susan B Anthony
    10. 1950’s Housewife Stereotype

    In 1973, the Supreme Court had a case, also referred to as Roe v. Wade, that would determine if it was unconstitutional for a woman to have an abortion. Ultimately, the court ruled in favor of Roe and the right to an abortion, however, the Supreme Court granted strict guidelines as to when and how a woman could get an abortion. These guidelines were revisited in the 1992 Planned Parenthood v. Casey case. The Supreme Court acknowledged the illegitimacy of the rule that a woman is required to get their spouse’s approval for an abortion, due to the law going against the fourteenth amendment and causing an unnecessary obstacle. While the requirement for a spouse’s approval was discontinued, there was still much commotion and concern as to during which trimesters should a woman be allowed to have an abortion. These concerns and arguments are still going on today while abortion laws fluctuate from state to state. Something I would genuinely like to understand further would be the justification for each standard a woman must complete or fall under in order to have an abortion.
    1. “The Politics of Abortion and Birth Control in Historical Perspective” by Donald T. Critchlow (1996)
    2. “The abortion rights controversy in America: a legal reader” by N. E. H. Hull (2004)

  12. 1. Susan B Anthony
    2. 19th Amendment
    3. National Association Opposed to Women Suffrage
    4. the shift from the first wave to the second wave (1960)
    5. NOW (National Organization for Women)
    6. Roe v. Wade
    7. Equal Right Amendment
    8.Betty Friedan
    9.The Feminine Mystique
    10. World War 2

    Women’s rights issues has been a fight as old as time. A fight that was largely contributed by female leaders such as Susan B Anthony. Susan helped pave the way for the Nineteenth Amendment. Over the decade women’s fight for equality shifts in waves. There was a shift from the first to the second wave which is widely credited to Betty Friedan’s book The Feminine Mystique. The novel described the social assumptions women had to meet. She was also a founder of NOW, an organization to promote feminist ideals and lead to positive societal change for women. One aspect of change they strived to make was to get women the right to choose an abortion if they so, please. Many women began drifting from the organization as their beliefs did not align with this one topic. During this fight for women, there were many who disagreed and believed women should not have rights such as, National Association Opposed to Women’s Suffrage.

    Hosken, Fran P., ‘Towards a Definition of Women’s Rights’ in Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 2. (May 1981), pp. 1–10.
    Lockwood, Bert B. (ed.), Women’s Rights: A “Human Rights Quarterly” Reader (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), ISBN 978-0-8018-8374-3.
    Kramer, Samuel Noah (1963), The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character, Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, p. 78, ISBN 978-0-226-45238-8

  13. American Federation of Labor/ CIO/ AFL-CIO
    Samuel Gompers
    Ronald Reagan
    International Brotherhood of Teamsters
    Jimmy Hoffa
    Taft-Hartley Act
    Robert F Kennedy
    The Enemy Within
    The Battle of Blair Mountain

    The history of labor relations is a tragic story. As unions rose in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, they became a force to be reckoned with in local and national politics as well as in relations between employees and corporations. However, through the actions of a few individuals, the story of nation-wide unions became one of corruption rather quickly. This was immediately pounced upon by those who had interest in the death of unions and a renewed assertion of control by corporations in their relationships with workers, and unions declined as quickly as they came into being. This was coupled with a decline in workers’ rights and a stagnation of pay, resulting in the broken economy we now live in.

    “The Enemy Within” by Robert F Kennedy
    “The Hoffa Wars: Teamsters, Rebels, Politicians and the Mob” by Dan Moldea

  14. Congressional Exclusionary Act/ Chinese Exclusion Act(May 6, 1882)
    Chinese Massacre of 1871
    Rock Springs massacre, 1885
    Japanese American Internment (WW II)
    Vincent Chin
    San Francisco plague
    Donald Trump
    Magnuson Act in 1943
    Atlanta spa shootings
    With the increase of hate crimes against Asian Americans, hatred against Asian Americans comes to public’s attention again. In reality, discrimination against Asian Americans has been a deep-rooted issue. The formation of discrimination against Asian America in the US has been formed by different reasons including economic depression and the spread of disease. In addition, many of them are related to historical events that ban asians from being a part of the community. Asians have long been put at a  marginalized position. Moreover, as these stereotypes has been deeply rooted, they leave a long-lasting effect until today. Thus, I would like to discover what exactly are the factors causing the hatred towards Asian Americans to be long-lasting.

    Secondary Sources:
    Stand against anti-Asian racial discrimination during COVID-19: A call for action by Qin Gao and Xiaofang Liu
    Overview of U.S. White Supremacist Groups by Stanislav Vysotsky and Chip Berlet

  15. Sexual Revolution of the 1960s
    2. Summer of Love
    3. “Hippie”
    4. Kinsey Reports
    5. Feminism
    6. Playboy
    7. New Age
    8. Woodstock
    9. Psychedelic Music
    10. Human Potential Movement

    The sexual revolution of the 1960s is a social movement that holistically involves music, love, art, media, drugs, fashion, and of course, sex. It is closely connected with the counterculture of the 1960s that opposed conventional establishments of social, political, and economic factors of society. During this time came the emergence of the “hippie”, who represented this revolution as they lived a life that was sexually liberated, drug-induced, and above all else, inspired peace. The Summer of Love in 1967 and the Woodstock Music Festival of 1969 marked this period by introducing youth to a contemporary genre of music, psychedelia, that paired nicely with the development of mind-altering drugs. Due to the wide-spread sexual liberation, assisted by Playboy’s first club that opened in 1960 and the Kinsey Reports released in the 50s that controversially discussed sexual orientation and response, women and homosexuals were under the spotlight. The New Age and Human Potential Movement seem to have originated from the events and attitudes of the 60s, and I would like to discover as to what extent the sexual revolution impacted society and these ideas. I also wonder how all of these things interact with one another in order to develop an informed narrative of the decade.

    Kevin Slack, “Sexual Revolution, Multiculturalism, and the Rise of Identity Politics”, The Heritage Foundation, 2013 https://www.heritage.org/polit.....d-the-rise

    David Farber, “Self-Invention in the Realm of Production: Craft, Beauty, and Community in the American Countercultures, 1964-1978”, Pacific Historical Review, 2016 https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy......b_contents

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